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Preclinical study suggests ARID1a mutations may help predict immunotherapy success

first_img Source:https://www.mdanderson.org/newsroom/2018/05/preclinical-md-anderson-study-suggests-arid1a-may-be-useful-biomarker-for-immunotherapy.html May 8 2018Functional loss of ARID1a, a frequently mutated tumor suppressor gene, causes deficiencies in normal DNA repair and may sensitize tumors to immune checkpoint blockade therapies, according to researchers from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. The preclinical study suggests that mutations in ARID1a could be beneficial in predicting immunotherapy success.The findings, published today in Nature Medicine, are the first to identify a role for ARID1a in regulating mismatch repair (MMR), a normal process for correcting DNA damage. Further, the study showed that treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting PD-1 successfully reduced tumor burden and prolonged survival in mouse models with ARID1a-deficient tumors relative to controls.Mutations in ARID1a occur frequently in a wide spectrum of cancers, with particularly high mutation rates (15-50 percent) in clear cell ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, gastric cancer and bladder cancer. However, most mutations lead to loss of ARID1a, making it a poor therapeutic target, explained senior author Guang Peng, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor of Clinical Cancer Prevention.”Since this is a very highly mutated gene in cancer, we wanted to better understand the biological function of ARID1a and potential therapeutic vulnerabilities,” said Peng. “We did a variety of molecular assays and demonstrated, for the first time, that ARID1a deficiency has a causative relationship with MMR deficiency.”The researchers performed a screen in cancer cells to identify proteins which interact with ARID1a and discovered a connection with MSH2, a protein with a key role in regulating MMR. Additional in vitro assays confirmed that ARID1a was essential to normal MMR function.Tumors with deficiencies in MMR are known to accumulate large numbers of genetic mutations and corresponding mutant proteins, or neoantigens, as the disease progresses. These neoantigens are thought to stimulate an immune response, making them more susceptible to checkpoint blockade therapy.Related StoriesNew prostate cancer test could bring an end to unnecessary biopsiesScientists discover rare autoimmune disease triggered by testicular cancerMR Solutions leads the way in developing helium free MRI systemsThe researchers therefore analyzed data across cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and confirmed that tumors with ARID1a mutations indeed carried higher mutational loads. Further, ARID1a mutations were more common in tumors with microsatellite instability (MSI), another marker for MMR dysfunction.”The FDA has approved MMR deficiency as a marker for the use of checkpoint-blockade immunotherapy,” said Peng. “Therefore, we wondered whether ARID1a-deficient tumors would have increased sensitivity to checkpoint blockade because they have impaired MMR and increased mutation load.”Further analysis of TCGA data revealed that tumors with ARID1a mutations exhibited an activation of the immune system, according to gene expression levels of immune markers. Therefore, the researchers investigated the use of checkpoint blockade inhibitors in treating tumors with ARID1a mutations.Using mouse models of both ovarian and colorectal cancer, the researchers compared the effectiveness of anti-PD-1 therapy in mice with ARID1a-mutant tumors relative to controls with functional ARID1a. Treatment with the checkpoint blockade therapy significantly improved survival in mice with ARID1a mutations, suggesting immunotherapy could be useful for patients with ARID1a-mutant tumors.”Our findings link ARID1a mutations to MMR deficiency, thus providing a therapeutic target by immune checkpoint blockade,” said Peng. “We hope that our data will contribute to clinical studies testing ARID1a as a new biomarker for checkpoint blockade therapies.”Future work will be necessary to confirm the researchers’ findings in clinical patient samples. Peng hopes to initiate clinical studies to investigate the value of ARID1a mutations across cancer types as a predictor of response to checkpoint blockade inhibitors targeting PD-1.last_img read more

UAB professor receives award for malaria prevention study in pregnant women in

first_imgMay 25 2018Jodie Dionne-Odom, M.D., assistant professor in the University of Alabama at Birmingham’s Division of Infectious Diseases and chief of Women’s Health Services at UAB’s 1917 Clinic, has been awarded a five-year, $841,000 K23 grant from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health. The award will fund a randomized controlled phase II study to determine the efficacy and safety of a new antibiotic regimen to prevent malaria and other infections during pregnancy among women living with HIV in Cameroon.Currently, more than 3 billion people are at risk of contracting malaria, and pregnant women with HIV in Africa are at heightened risk. In a resource-limited setting, Dionne-Odom’s research will hopefully find an effective prophylaxis for these patients that will improve adverse birth outcomes, improve maternal health and combat the spread of malaria in vulnerable populations.Related StoriesEngineers crack the code to quickly diagnose anti-malarial drug resistanceStudy shows how the mosquito immune system combats malaria parasitesProteasome inhibitors show potential for combating multidrug-resistant malaria”Women in sub-Saharan Africa are at a very high risk of getting malaria and having complications of pregnancy as a result of infection, and malaria and HIV are leading causes of death in Cameroon,” Dionne-Odom said. “We’re hoping to identify a successful regimen to prevent common infections in this exposed population that will in turn improve pregnancy and birth outcomes, while helping other at-risk women across the world in the future.”When pregnant women are infected with malaria, a vector-borne disease transmitted through mosquito bites, they can suffer with fevers, malaise and anemia. The disease can also impact the infant, causing prematurity, low birth weight, congenital infection or even stillbirth.The study, which is currently enrolling patients, will be conducted at two sites -; Mboppi Baptist Hospital in Douala, Cameroon, and Baptist Hospital in Mutengene, Cameroon. As the associate director of the UAB Cameroon Health Initiative (CHI-UAB) team, Dionne-Odom will be working in tandem with in-country experts from the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services and faculty members from the University of Buea for the duration of the study.While Dionne-Odom is the lead investigator, an on-the-ground team in Cameroon working at four hospital facilities includes a project coordinator, four research nurses, two research assistants, a pharmacist, clinicians and administrators. This malaria project is one of several ongoing CHI-UAB global research projects focusing on improving maternal and child health.The study will enroll 310 women over a two-year period.Dionne-Odom was recently awarded the 2018 UAB Pittman Scholar Award for Excellence in Research.Source: https://www.uab.edu/news/research/item/9484-researcher-awarded-k23-grant-to-study-malaria-prevention-in-pregnant-women-in-cameroonlast_img read more

Combination of arsenic and existing leukemia drug may combat cancer

first_imgAug 9 2018Investigators have discovered that arsenic in combination with an existing leukemia drug work together to target a master cancer regulator. The team, led by researchers at the Cancer Center at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), is hopeful that the discovery could lead to new treatment strategies for diverse types of cancer. Their findings were published today online in Nature Communications.Despite its current reputation as a poison, arsenic is considered one of the world’s oldest drugs, used for centuries as a treatment for ailments ranging from infection to cancer. While arsenic at certain levels in public drinking water has been linked conclusively to a variety of cancers, surprisingly, its presence at other doses has been linked to unusually low rates of breast cancer.Researchers including Pier Paolo Pandolfi, MD, PhD, Director of the Cancer Center and Cancer Research Institute at BIDMC, also demonstrated that arsenic trioxide (ATO) – an oxide of arsenic that was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1995 – when used in combination with another drug called all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), was effective against acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), a discovery that has transformed the treatment of the disease from being highly fatal to being highly curable. However, it’s not fully clear what cellular target(s) these drugs act on, how they interact with each other, or whether they might be effective against other types of cancer.Now, led by Kun Ping Lu, MD, PhD, and Xiao Zhen Zhou, MD, investigators at the Cancer Research Institute at BIDMC, discovered a previously unrecognized mechanism by which arsenic trioxide and all-trans retinoic acid work together to combat cancer. They found that the two drugs cooperate to destroy Pin1, a unique enzyme that the researchers discovered more than 20 years ago.Together, when given at clinically safe doses, the drugs effectively inhibited numerous cancer-driving pathways and eliminated cancer stem cells in cell and animal models as well as patient-derived tumor models of triple-negative breast cancer, which has the worst prognosis of all breast cancer subtypes.”Our discovery strongly suggests an exciting new possibility of adding arsenic trioxide to existing therapies in treating triple-negative breast cancer and many other cancer types, especially when patients’ cancers are found to be Pin1-positive,” said Zhou. “This might significantly improve the outcomes of cancer treatment.”Known to be a master regulator of cancer signaling networks, Pin1 activates more than 40 cancer-driving proteins and inactivates more than 20 tumor suppressing proteins. It has been found to be over-activated in most human cancers and is especially active in cancer stem cells – a subpopulation of cancer cells believed to drive tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis, but not effectively targeted by current therapies.Related StoriesTrends in colonoscopy rates not aligned with increase in early onset colorectal cancerNew research links “broken heart syndrome” to cancerSugary drinks linked to cancer finds studyIn their study, Zhou, Lu and their colleagues found that arsenic trioxide fights cancer by binding, inhibiting, and degrading Pin1. All-trans retinoic acid also binds and destroys the Pin1 enzyme, but in addition, it increases cells’ uptake of arsenic trioxide, increasing expression of a cell membrane protein that pumps ATO into cells. Mice that lack expression of Pin1 are highly resistant to developing cancer even when their cells overexpress oncogenes or lack expression of tumor suppressors. Notably, these animals display no obvious defects for over half of lifespan, suggesting that targeting this master switch of an enzyme may be safe.The findings are especially promising when considering the wide-range effects of Pin1. Aggressive tumors are often resistant to targeted therapies aimed at blocking individual pathways, but targeting Pin1 would not only short circuit numerous cancer-promoting signals, but also eliminate cancer stem cells, the two major sources of cancer drug resistance. However, no effective Pin1 inhibitors have yet been developed.”It’s gratifying to see this combination of all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide that my lab discovered to be curative in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia translate into possible approaches for the treatment of other cancers,” said Pandolfi. “Indeed, it is interesting to speculate that this combination may even prove curative in other tumor types yet to be discovered.”Although the anticancer effects of arsenic trioxide are potently amplified by all-trans retinoic acid co-treatment, all-trans retinoic acid has a very short time span of effectiveness. “We and others have confirmed the ability of all-trans retinoic acid to inhibit Pin1 function in breast cancer, liver cancer, and acute myeloid leukemia, as well as in lupus and asthma; however, clinical uses of all-trans retinoic acid, especially in solid tumors, have been severely limited by its very short half-life of 45 minutes in humans,” said Lu. “Our results stimulate the development of longer half-life all-trans retinoic acid to combine with arsenic trioxide or other more potent Pin1 inhibitors because they may offer a promising new approach to fighting a broad range of cancers without general toxicity, as proven in curing APL.”Source: https://www.bidmc.org/last_img read more

Study helps to better understand disease caused by Alpha1 antitrypsin deficiency

first_img Source:https://www.uv.es/ Aug 14 2018The disease consists of a production deficit of Alpha-1 antitrypsin, which is produced in the liver. The main role of this protein is to protect the lungs from degradation or inflammation caused by infections that attach lung tissue, as well as from external agents such a tobacco or pollution. From the liver, Alpha-1 antitrypsin travels to the lungs through the blood stream. However, if this transfer does not take place properly, its accumulation can cause liver diseases, as well as lung problems such as emphysema. This disease, according to the study, is under-diagnosed to the point that almost 90% of those who have it are unaware.Related StoriesMother calls for protein shake regulation after daughter diesNew research links “broken heart syndrome” to cancerNew protein target for deadly ovarian cancerThe article was created with the collaboration of members from the Department of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, as well as Physology, of the Universitat de València, of Madrid’s Carlos III Health Institute, the Vall de Hebrón hospital and Health Research Institute INCLIVA. Its goal is to help researchers and medical specialists to better understand this disease, which would facilitate research, prevent cases of erroneous diagnosis and increase treatment efficiency.This compilation has added as a novelty a specific chapter on how this disease affects children of a paediatric age, as well as taking into account the latest research on epigenetics and biomarkers, as well as future therapeutic approaches, including research into gene editing.Furthermore, the study also wanted to highlight the clinic efficiency of replacement therapy, which has been called into question in some countries due to the low number of clinical trials that have been carried out, which makes national health agencies not want to pay for these treatments. This forces patients to pay for their own medication.One of the main treatment difficulties that the deficit of Alpha-1 antitrypsin raises, according to the study, is the clinical variability that patients exhibit. While some never show any symptoms throughout their lifetime, others develop symptomatology in their childhood, during puberty or when they are young adults.For this reason, in accordance with the group that carried out the study, there is a need for biomarkers that prognosticate and facilitate the prediction of the disease’s progression or its treatment. This will increase understanding of the affected molecular mechanisms.last_img read more

New parental training program improves toddlers reactions to mildly stressful situations

first_imgReviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Aug 29 2018A parental training program for families referred to Child Protective Services improved toddlers’ unconscious reactions to mildly stressful situations, as well as improving parents’ behavior, according to a new study by researchers at the University of California, Davis and the University of Washington. The work is published August 28 in Developmental Science.”In everything we do, the brain and body are coordinated through the autonomic nervous system,” said Paul Hastings, professor in the UC Davis Department of Psychology and Center for Mind and Brain. “We know that these neurobiological systems are shaped by our experiences in the world, including parenting.”The autonomic nervous system functions primarily below the level of conscious thought and has two arms: the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. The better-known sympathetic system regulates “fight or flight” responses. The parasympathetic system tends to calm those responses and contributes to our ability to engage socially and emotionally with other people.People who have experienced maltreatment as children are at risk of developing depression and other mental health problems later in life. This may be tied to the effects of poor parenting on physiology, including the parasympathetic system. But under normal circumstances, it’s difficult to study whether parenting style can cause changes in a child’s physiology – you couldn’t ethically or practically do an experiment in which children are assigned to be in families with better or worse parents and see what happens, Hastings said.Intervention to improve parentingPromoting First Relationships is a training program designed to improve sensitivity towards infants and toddlers in troubled families. Professor Monica Oxford of the University of Washington led a study of the program’s effectiveness with 247 families who had been referred to Child Protective Services for maltreatment. Families either took the Promoting First Relationships training, which involves in-home visits and parent training sessions, or the standard service of receiving referrals and resources. That study showed that the training did improve parents’ understanding and sensitive engagement with their toddlers and lowered the number of foster care placements.Hastings’ team used a sample of 29 families from the Promoting First Relationships training and 30 families from the comparison group to see if the treatment program that changed parenting behavior also had an effect on children’s parasympathetic regulation, measured based on changes in heart rate in response to mildly challenging or stressful tasks such as completing a simple puzzle or petting a plastic spider that jumps when triggered. Typically, children react to such situations with a mild decrease in parasympathetic regulation, becoming more alert and ready to take in information. The team assessed the children at the end of the Promoting First Relationships trial, and again three and six months later.Related StoriesStudy provides new insight into longitudinal decline in brain network integrity associated with agingNew research links “broken heart syndrome” to cancerResearch sheds light on sun-induced DNA damage and repairChildren of parents who received the training responded to the tasks with the typical pattern of mild parasympathetic decreases that indicated they were attentive to and engaged with the tasks. This response was strongest in the children of parents who showed the most improvement in sensitive behavior after the training.Children of parents in the comparison group had a bigger drop in parasympathetic activity, which would open the door for their sympathetic system to drive fight-or-flight responses like becoming distressed and withdrawing. This response matches what earlier studies had found in adolescents and adults who had experienced maltreatment during their childhoods.Inner strengthShowing that an intervention that improves parenting behavior also improves young children’s physiological regulation is important, Hastings said, because that capacity for regulation is an internal strength that children can take forward into their future experiences, which should help them to be resilient and to thrive.This study worked with a particularly at-risk population, but helping parents who are within the normal range of behavior to become more sensitive and responsive could be beneficial for all children, Hastings said.”Parents are heavy consumers of self-help books and websites, but we don’t know how beneficial these things are for children’s overall development,” he said. “We know that parenting affects neurobiology and predicts later social and emotional adjustment, but we need evidence that programs like this make a difference in order to give parents the right advice.” Source:https://www.ucdavis.edu/news/training-parents-referred-cps-improves-toddler%E2%80%99s-physiological-regulationlast_img read more

Astronomers find debris from earliest stars

first_imgKISSIMMEE, FLORIDA—Astronomers have spotted evidence of how the very first generation of stars seeded  the universe with elements forged from the pristine hydrogen and helium produced by the big bang. Last year observers found a distant galaxy that seemed to have patches of stars made up of hydrogen and helium but nothing else. Making significant amounts of heavier elements, such as carbon, oxygen, and iron, is thought to have taken multiple generations of stars, so these appeared to be some of the very earliest stars. Today, a team of astronomers told the American Astronomical Society meeting here that they’ve found a cloud of gas that has tiny amounts of heavy elements, just as you would expect if primordial stars—so-called population III stars—had burned out, exploded, and spread their ingredients through the previously pristine gas cloud. To probe the cloud, the team used an even more distant quasar—a hugely bright light source powered by a supermassive black hole—as a backlight. As the quasar’s light passed through a galaxy that existed 1.8 billion years after the big bang, atoms in its gas clouds absorbed some wavelengths, leaving a fingerprint of the elements present. Analyzing the light with the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope in Chile, the researchers found the amount of elements heavier than helium to be less than one-thousandth that in the sun’s neighborhood, and the ratio of carbon to silicon is just what would be expected of exploded population III stars.last_img read more

Viral fossils in our DNA may help us fight infection

first_img Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe In the new study, researchers led by Edward Chuong, a computational biologist at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City, explored whether ERVs help us fend off invaders. They focused on the innate immune system, a first-line of defense. While the adaptive immune system learns to recognize specific invaders and mount responses against them, the innate system is preprogrammed to launch immediate attacks against entire classes of foreigners. The scientists scanned three different human cell lines for ERVs in their DNA that could bind to innate immunity transcription factors, which turn on genes to ramp up the immune system’s attack against pathogens. They found thousands of ERVs.The researchers predicted that if they removed this viral DNA from the cell, the transcription factors would not function properly, potentially disrupting genes involved in the innate immune response. Using the gene-editing tool CRISPR, they snipped out several endogenous viruses from the cell’s DNA.When researchers infected these ERV-depleted cells with the vaccinia virus (which may be related to smallpox), they had a much weaker innate immune response than unedited normal cells, the team reports online today in Science. A key immune protein wasn’t produced and thus was not fighting the virus. When researchers later added the genes back into the cells experimentally, immune function was restored.This new research provides evidence that “an ancient viral element is assisting us against an infection,” Chuong says. He adds that the next step will be to do this experiment in a mouse.It’s an “elegant study” and “a well-documented example of this fascinating interplay between ERVs and their host organism,” says Dixie Mager, a geneticist at British Columbia Cancer Agency in Vancouver, Canada, who researches how genetic elements sometimes “jump” around genomes. The work suggests that these viral fossils probably played a key role in the evolution of our species, adds Harmit Malik, an evolutionary biologist at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington. It’s “a spectacular example of innovation,” he says. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Countrycenter_img You are up to 8% virus, at least as far as your genome is concerned. Up to 100,000 pieces of ancient viral DNA live among our genes, yet their function—if any—has long been unclear. A new study suggests that some of this foreign genetic material may boost our immune systems, even protecting us from other viruses.When a type of virus known as a retrovirus infects a cell, it converts its RNA into DNA, which can then become part of a human chromosome. Once in a while, retroviruses infect sperm and egg cells and become “endogenous,” meaning they are passed down from generation to generation. Endogenous retroviruses, or ERVs, are not able to produce new viruses, and because of that scientists originally assumed that they were harmless genetic fossils.Controversial studies have long suggested that certain cancers—like some lymphomas—result when ERVs interfere with normal gene function. But more recently, researchers have raised the possibility that these viruses can also be a good thing. ERVs—perhaps inherited millions of years ago—may affect genes important to placenta function and thus may improve our ability to carry a pregnancy. What’s more, there is evidence that they play a role in the early human embryo, where they may help fight off infectious viruses. Emaillast_img read more

Protein isolated from human cord blood has antiaging effects on memory in

first_img Email Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Researchers have found a protein in the blood of human umbilical cords that improves memory and learning in old mice. The provocative finding joins a flurry of other recent, sometimes controversial work attempting to find factors that explain the apparent antiaging properties of young blood.“These are exciting results,” says Sally Temple, scientific director of the Neural Stem Cell Institute in Rensselaer, New York, who was not involved with the work. She and others say the new finding suggests that this and other factors in young blood may have different, complementary effects on the aging brain.Decades ago in somewhat grisly experiments, researchers found that sewing together the circulatory systems of an old and young mouse so that they shared the same blood supply rejuvenated the old animals. In 2014, as part of renewed interest in this unusual procedure, known as parabiosis, neuroscientist Tony Wyss-Coray’s lab at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, reported that it could mimic some of the brain-boosting effects of parabiosis with injections of young mouse plasma, the cell-free part of blood. Pixelistanbul/iStockphoto center_img Identifying the responsible factors in such blood is a challenge, however. Because mice are so tiny, it’s hard to collect enough mouse plasma to do biochemical and other analyses. As an alternative, Wyss-Coray’s lab recently tested the youngest human blood available—umbilical cord blood, which is traditionally thrown away after a birth but has become increasingly prized as physicians explore its therapeutic uses.In the new work, Wyss-Coray’s group gave human cord blood plasma to mice of varying ages that had defective immune systems and so did not reject the foreign human tissue. Like young mouse plasma, human cord plasma injected every 4 days for 2 weeks into the circulation activated neurons in old mice’s hippocampi, where memories are made and stored. (This activation did not happen in the hippocampi of young mice treated with cord blood.) After the injections, the aging animals also navigated a maze more quickly and performed better on other tests of learning and memory, Wyss-Coray’s team reports today in Nature.The team then looked for blood proteins that are abundant in human cords but decline in the general circulation with age. They ultimately homed in one called TIMP2, which was previously known to control the production of enzymes that chop up the matrix around cells and play a role in wound healing as well as the spread of cancer. (Its full name is tissue metallopeptidase inhibitor 2.) Old mice injected with mouse TIMP2 scored almost as well on memory tests as those given cord plasma, although they still didn’t match the cognitive skills of young mice, Wyss-Coray says. To help clinch its case for TIMP2, the Stanford group also showed that cord blood depleted of TIMP2 did nothing for old mice, and blocking TIMP2 in young mice impaired their memory.The researchers’ search for antiaging factors did not point to another protein, GDF11, which some scientists have reported stimulates the growth of new blood vessels and neural stem cells in the brain. (Another claim—that GDF11 rejuvenates muscle—has been hotly contested by several labs, partly because their studies suggest GDF11 levels rise with age.)But Wyss-Coray says the new study does not rule out a role for GDF11 in the brain. Harvard University neuroscientist Lee Rubin, who co-led the GDF11 brain study, says the new findings suggest “it isn’t just one thing. A lot of individual factors in blood can improve function.” Indeed, one might want to combine GDF11 and TIMP2 treatments to both generate new neurons and “get the most out of the cells that are there,” Temple suggests.Some experts are less impressed by the study. Parabiosis researcher Irina Conboy of the University of California, Berkeley, notes that the paper doesn’t put the modest memory and learning improvements from TIMP2 in context by comparing them to, say, putting an old mouse on an exercise wheel, which can also improve cognitive function. Her own work suggests that the apparent antiaging effects of young blood may reflect the fact that it contains less of certain factors in old blood that her lab and others have reported contribute to aging.Stanford has filed for patents on using TIMP2 to treat aging-associated conditions, and Alkahest, a company in San Carlos, California, that Wyss-Coray co-founded, plans to develop it. An Alkahest-sponsored trial at Stanford testing young human plasma as a treatment in 18 Alzheimer’s disease patients ended in January; results will be presented at a meeting in November, says Alkahest CEO Karoly Nikolich. (Rubin serves on Alkahest’s advisory board.) Meanwhile, some clinics are already offering young blood injections to reverse aging in people. But Wyss-Coray and others say such treatments are premature. Protein isolated from human cord blood has antiaging effects on memory in mice By Jocelyn KaiserApr. 19, 2017 , 1:00 PM A protein in umbilical cord blood boosted memory in old mice.last_img read more

Ancient Egyptians may have given cats the personality to conquer the world

first_img Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford/Bridgeman Images Ancient Egyptians may have given cats the personality to conquer the world Today’s blotched tabbies (left)—like all cats—are descended from the Near Eastern wildcat (right). Around 1950 B.C.E., someone painted an unusual creature on the back wall of a limestone tomb some 250 kilometers south of Cairo. With its long front legs, upright tail, and triangular head staring down an approaching field rat, it is unmistakably a domestic cat—the first appearance in the art of ancient Egypt. In the centuries that followed, cats became a fixture of Egyptian paintings and sculptures, and were even immortalized as mummies, as they rose in status from rodent killer to pet to god. Historians took all this as evidence that the ancient Egyptians were the first to domesticate the feline. That is, until 2004, when researchers discovered a 9500-year-old cat buried with a human on the Mediterranean island of Cyprus, revealing that cats had been living with people thousands of years before Egypt even existed.A new study could put Egypt back in the limelight. A genetic analysis of more than 200 ancient cats suggests that, even if the animals were domesticated outside Egypt, it was the Egyptians who turned them into the lovable fur balls we know today. It’s even possible they domesticated cats a second time.“It’s a very nice piece of work,” says Salima Ikram, an expert on ancient Egyptian animals and cat mummies at American University in Cairo. The idea that the Egyptians helped shape the modern cat, she says, “makes perfect sense.” Credits: (Graphic) A. Kitterman/Science; (Data) C. Ottoni et al., Nature Ecology & Evolution (2017) The world’s first cats all appear to sport the same lybica subtype, mitochondrial type A. This genetic signature pops up at least 9000 years ago in what is now Turkey, the team reports today in Nature Ecology & Evolution. Archaeologists think that, perhaps about 10,000 years ago, wildcats in this region—with a southern coast just a few dozen kilometers from Cyprus—slunk into early farming villages to hunt rodents and eventually self-domesticated into modern cats. By 6500 years ago, these type A cats began appearing in southeastern Europe, the team found, possibly following migrating farmers. After that, cats infiltrated the rest of Europe, Africa, and Asia.But that’s only half the story. Most of the Egyptian cat mummies sport a different lybica subtype, type C, which first appears in the team’s samples around 800 B.C.E. (It’s possible that the type C cat could have been living in Egypt much earlier—the early graveyard study didn’t yield any usable DNA.) Cats with this genetic signature appear to have been incredibly popular: By the fifth century C.E., they spread through Europe and the Mediterranean. And during the first millennium C.E., they came to outnumber type A cats two to one in places like western Turkey.The ancient Egyptians may have been responsible for this popularity. “The Egyptians were the first people to have the resources to do everything bigger and better,” says Carlos Driscoll, the World Wildlife Fund chair in conservation genetics at the Wildlife Institute of India in Dehradun, who led the 2007 study. That ability may have extended to breeding cats. As the Egyptians bred more and more felines, Driscoll speculates, they would have selected for the ones that were easiest to have around—more social and less territorial than their predecessors. “They turbocharged the tameness process.”Egypt’s art reflects this dramatic transformation. The earliest representations of cats depict a working animal, like the rat hunter in the limestone tomb. But over the centuries the felines begin to appear in more domestic contexts, hunting birds with people, wearing collars, and—by 1500 B.C.E.—sitting under chairs at the dinner table. “They go from being a slaughterer of mice to a couch potato,” says Eva Maria-Geigl, an evolutionary geneticist who oversaw the study with molecular biologist Thierry Grange, both at the Jacques Monod Institute in Paris. Still, it’s unclear where these type C cats came from in the first place. Egyptian wildcats may carry this genetic signature, so type A cats from Turkey may have made their way to Egypt and mated with them. Or the ancient Egyptians may have independently domesticated cats from local type C wildcats. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) (Left to right): © Ardea/Labat, Jean Michel/Animals Animals; © Lacz, Gerard/Animals Animals center_img The study has its roots in an ancient graveyard on the west bank of the Nile River in southern Egypt. In 2008, archaeozoologist Wim Van Neer of the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences in Brussels unearthed the remains of six cats—a male, a female, and four kittens—that appear to have been cared for by people nearly 6000 years ago. Although younger than the Cyprus cat, the discovery made Van Neer wonder whether prehistoric Egyptians could have independently domesticated the modern feline. “Scientists more or less forgot about Egypt after the Cyprus find,” he says.He gathered hundreds of cat specimens—bones, teeth, and mummies from across Africa, Europe, and the Middle East dating from about 7000 B.C.E. to the 19th century C.E. Then, he teamed up with more than two dozen researchers who drilled into the remains for mitochondrial DNA, genetic material inherited solely from the mother and found in the cell’s energy-generating machinery. In 2007, other researchers had analyzed the DNA of modern cats to show that all living domestic cats trace their ancestry to the Near Eastern wildcat (Felis silvestris lybica)—a small, sandy-colored feline that looks like a Mackerel tabby. This subspecies contains felines with five unique genetic signatures in their mitochondrial DNA. “We mapped what we knew about the age and location of our ancient cats onto these signatures to figure out how the earliest cats spread out over time,” says University of Oslo postdoc Claudio Ottoni, who carried out the genetic analysis in the new study. By David GrimmJun. 19, 2017 , 11:00 AM Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Two waves of cats An ancient exodus of cats from both Turkey and Egypt may have given us the modern cat. Email A cat in a domestic setting—eating under a dining table—sometime after 1500 B.C.E.  Ikram says a dual domestication makes sense, as other animals—including dogs and pigs—may also have been domesticated more than once. But Driscoll is skeptical, noting that many plants and animals in Egypt originally came from Turkey and the rest of the Near East. “There’s no reason to believe an independent domestication in Egypt.”Either way, type A and type C cats eventually intermingled in Europe and beyond. Today’s cats are likely a blend of both Turkish and Egyptian cats.And they underwent another dramatic transformation: A separate analysis of the genes for coat color showed that the coat pattern of cats—which had gone unchanged from the striped sandy appearance of its wildcat ancestors for thousands of years—began to vary, with a blotched tabby look appearing around the 14th century C.E. Dogs and horses changed coat patterns much earlier in their domestication, suggesting that when it came to cats, people were more interested in how they acted than in how they looked. “The only thing they had to do was to get better at living with people,” Driscoll says. “And this paper gives clues to how that happened.”In the meantime, Van Neer still hopes to find out whether the Egyptians independently domesticated cats. He’s already begun traveling to museums in Vienna, searching their collections for ancient cat mummies and DNA that may fill in the missing history of man’s most mysterious friend.*Correction, 19 June, 3:50 p.m.: The map has been updated to reflect the fact that type A cats came from Turkey, and type C from Egypt. It has been further updated because the original version mislabeled the Black Sea as the Caspian Sea.last_img read more

Paints pesticides and other consumer products now add as much to air

first_imgiStock.com/MattGush By Roni DenglerFeb. 15, 2018 , 2:00 PM Paints, pesticides, and other consumer products now add as much to air pollution as carscenter_img AUSTIN—Cars are no longer the top contributor to urban air pollution. That’s the conclusion of a new study presented here at the annual meeting of AAAS, which publishes Science, that finds pesticides, paints, adhesives, and other consumer and industrial products add about as much to air pollution as transportation does. For the new work, researchers examined volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs react with air to create ozone and, separately, produce fine particulate matter, which contributes to haze. Both of these air pollutants are health hazards and contribute to respiratory diseases, particularly in urban areas where emissions tend to be highest. Emissions from cars and other automobiles have long been considered the major contributor to these kinds of air pollutants. But the new work, which examined the chemical productions statistics from industrial and government agencies, found pesticides, coatings, inks, adhesives, and personal care products such as perfumes produce more than double the emissions of cars. That means U.S. inventories underestimate VOC emissions from these products by as much as a factor of three while overestimating car VOC emissions by 40%, researchers also report today in Science. Because most people use the products that make VOCs indoors, the researchers also compared emissions from residential and commercial buildings to outdoor measurements in Los Angeles, California. They found the concentration of emission compounds indoors was seven times higher than in ambient air. That means air pollution is increasingly from consumer and industrial products rather than from the transportation sector. These products are used indoors where people spend most of their time, which means their use poses a health risk that requires updated regulations, the researchers say.Check out all of our coverage of AAAS 2018.last_img read more

Highprofile ocean warming paper to get a correction

first_img By Christa Marshall, E&E NewsNov. 14, 2018 , 2:55 PM After a blog post flagged some discrepancies in the study, the authors, from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in San Diego, California, and Princeton University in New Jersey, said they would submit a correction to the journal.The overall conclusion that oceans are trapping more and more heat mirrors other studies and is not inaccurate, but the margin of error in the study is larger than originally thought, said Ralph Keeling, a professor of geosciences at Scripps and co-author of the paper.”These problems do not invalidate the methodology or the new insights into ocean biogeochemistry on which it is based, but they do influence the mean rate of warming we infer, and more importantly, the uncertainties of that calculation,” said Keeling in a statement on RealClimate.org.He added that he accepts “responsibility for these oversights, because it was my role to ensure that details of the measurements were correctly understood and taken up by coauthors.”Scripps corrected a news release on its website, with a statement from Keeling.”Obviously this is difficult but I am glad we are setting it right,” said Laure Resplandy, an associate professor of geosciences at Princeton who was the disputed paper’s lead author, in an email.A spokesperson for Nature said “issues relating to this paper have been brought to Nature’s attention and we are looking into them carefully. We take all concerns related to papers we have published very seriously and will issue an update once further information is available.””Science is complex”The errors were pointed out by British researcher Nic Lewis on the blog of Judith Curry, a former professor at the Georgia Institute of Technology’s School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences who has questioned the accuracy of some climate models.”Just a few hours of analysis and calculations, based only on published information, was sufficient to uncover apparently serious (but surely inadvertent) errors in the underlying calculations,” Lewis wrote.The study suggested greenhouse gas emissions may need to be cut much faster than anticipated to meet climate targets, because of more aggressive ocean warming calculated in a new model. The team examined changes in atmospheric ocean and carbon dioxide levels to assess how the ocean’s heat content has changed over time.Keeling said the team incorrectly assessed oxygen measurements. Ocean warming likely is still greater than IPCC estimates, but the range of probability is more in line with previous studies.”The more important message is that our study lacks the accuracy to narrow the range of previous estimates of ocean uptake,” Keeling said in an email. He thanked Lewis for pointing out the anomaly.Gavin Schmidt, director of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, said it’s not unheard of for there to be occasional errors in peer-reviewed studies.”The fact is that science is complex, and when you have a lot of different steps from people in different sub-fields, it is understandable that some things slip through the cracks,” Schmidt said. “While it’s initially embarrassing, post-publication review is helpful and ultimately constructive.”In the past, scientific debates about climate science have prompted skeptics to attack mainstream climate science generally. Some climate scientists said they are concerned that could happen again in this case and the outcome wildly misinterpreted.When asked about the response of skeptics, climate scientist Michael Mann of Pennsylvania State University in State College said, “We can’t worry about that.””We have to just call it as we see it, do good science, put it out there, defend it and, when necessary, correct it. That’s the legitimate scientific process, and it stands in stark contrast to the tactics employed by the forces of pseudoscience and antiscience,” Mann said.This morning the website Climate Depot, which frequently targets mainstream climate science, sent out an email with the headline, “Skeptic review dismantles study.”Reprinted from Greenwire with permission from E&E News. Copyright 2018. E&E provides essential news for energy and environment professionals at www.eenews.net Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Email Originally published by E&E NewsScientists behind a major study on ocean warming this month are acknowledging errors in their calculations and say conclusions are not as certain as first reported.The research, published in the journal Nature, said oceans are warming much faster than previously estimated and are taking up more energy than projected by the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) [Climatewire, Nov. 1]. Daniel Ramirez/Flickr Read more… Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country High-profile ocean warming paper to get a correction The ocean stores much of the warming caused by the buildup of greenhouse gases. last_img read more

Long disputed radio broadcasts from Amelia Earhart may have been genuine research

first_imgIt was such a shock to the world in 1937 when celebrated aviator Amelia Earhart disappeared during a flight over the Pacific that some people just couldn’t believe it. At least that is what the military said was the cause of dozens of reports of distress calls from Earhart. People said they were picking up fragments of messages from her on shortwave radio in the days immediately after her disappearance. But the officials insisted that the calls were not from her. People must be upset and confused or trying to get attention.Now there’s a new report out making the case that most of these transmissions were genuine. The report was delivered at a conference by the International Group for Historic Aircraft Recovery (TIGHAR). The group’s leading theory is that Earhart and her navigator lived for a short time on the deserted Gardner Island, later called Nikumaroro.Amelia Earhart standing under nose of her Lockheed Model 10-E Electra.Earhart and her navigator, Fred Noonan, may have been able to send out messages on a two-wave radio for a short time, they say. “Will have to get out of here,” a woman could be heard saying at one point, according to the paper containing TIGHAR’s research. “We can’t stay here long.”“Amelia Earhart did not simply vanish on July 2, 1937. Radio distress calls believed to have been sent from the missing plane dominated the headlines and drove much of the U.S. Coast Guard and Navy search,” Ric Gillespie, executive director of TIGHAR, told Discovery News.“When the search failed, all of the reported post-loss radio signals were categorically dismissed as bogus and have been largely ignored ever since,” he added.Amelia Earhart, standing beside a CIT-9 Safety Plane, Los Angeles, c. 1928Using digitized information management systems, antenna modeling software, and radio wave propagation analysis programs, TIGHAR re-examined all the 120 known reports of radio signals suspected or alleged to have been sent from the Earhart aircraft after local noon on July 2, 1937 through July 18, 1937, when the official search ended, according to NBC.The conclusion is that 57 out of the 120 reported signals are credible.A woman in Toronto heard the voice say, “We have taken in water . . . we can’t hold on much longer.”Amelia Earhart in Hawaii. Photo by Pacific Aviation Museum CC BY 2.0Earhart and Noonan could only use the radio for a few hours each night when the tide was low in order to not flood the engine as the plane rested out on the island’s reef, the Washington Post reported.The day after the crash, a Kentucky woman claimed she heard someone say “KHAQQ calling,” before saying “on or near little island at a point near…” and “something about a storm and that the wind was blowing,” according to the Post.With Noonan as her navigator and only crew member, Earhart left Oakland, California, on May 20, 1937, for Miami (with stops along the way), where she announced her intent to circumnavigate the globe. From there, they flew across South America, Africa, India, Southeast Asia, arriving at Lae in New Guinea on June 29, 1937. With 20,000 miles behind them, they had only 7,000 left over the Pacific Ocean.Amelia Earhart standing in front of the Lockheed Electra in which she disappeared in July 1937.On July 2, 1937, Earhart and Noonan took off from Lae with the intention of landing on Howland Island. They never made it.A ship, the USCGC Itasca, was stationed at Howland Island to help Earhart navigate landing her plane.At 7:42 a.m., she radioed: “We must be on you, but cannot see you–but gas is running low. Have been unable to reach you by radio. We are flying at 1,000 feet” At 8:43 a.m., Earhart reported, “We are on the line 157 337. We will repeat this message. We will repeat this on 6210 kilocycles. Wait.” And a few moments later: “We are running on line north and south.”Amelia Earhart in evening clothesThe search for Amelia Earhart was abandoned. The leading theory was that she crashed into the ocean and they sank. But there were always those who doubted the official version, who believed she survived for a short time. and was perhaps even spotted and taken prisoner by the Japanese.Read another story from us: Amelia Earhart’s plane is still missing and no one knows when or how she died, but her 1932 car has been found“The results of the study suggest that the aircraft was on land and on its wheels for several days following the disappearance,” Gillespie said.The research group believes that Gardner Island, an uninhabited atoll in the southwestern Pacific, is where Earhart and Noonan landed safely but ultimately died as castaways.Nancy Bilyeau, a former staff editor at Entertainment Weekly, Rolling Stone, and InStyle, has written a trilogy of historical thrillers for Touchstone Books. For more information, go to www.nancybilyeau.com.last_img read more

The Sound of Frida Kahlos Voice – Only Known Recording Possibly Found

first_imgWhat did Frida Kahlo’s voice sound like? Artist Frida Kahlo has fascinated people for decades, and now, 68 years after her death, excitement rages over the discovery of what seems to be the only known recording of her voice. Researchers at Mexico’s National Sound Library say archivists found the recording while digitizing a collection donated by a broadcaster. The 90-second audio clip comes from a 1950s pilot episode of the Mexican radio program called “The Bachelor.” The recording is of a woman describing Diego Rivera, Kahlo’s former husband and painting partner. “He’s a large child, massive, with a friendly face and sad look,” the woman’s, thought to be Frida Kahlo’s, voice says. “His bulging, dark, intelligent and big eyes are difficultly detained.”Frida in 1932The recording, which is believed to date to 1953 or 1954, introduces its speaker as a female painter “who no longer exists.” The artist died on July 13, 1954, shortly before the program’s release, at the age of 47. Rivera passed away three years later.In the recording, Kahlo goes on to say about Rivera: “His high, dark, extremely intelligent and big eyes rarely hold still. They almost come out of their sockets because of their swollen and protuberant eyelids—like a toad’s. They allow his gaze to take in a much wider visual field, as if they were built especially for a painter of large spaces and crowds,” the piece continues, per a translation.Frida and Diego RiveraKahlo was one of Mexico’s finest artists, a painter of self-portraits and other works, who is admired as a feminist icon. She incorporated graphic and surrealistic elements in her work and explored questions of identity, gender, race, and class.Frida Kahlo self-portrait 1940. Photo by Libby Rosof CC by 2.0The director of the Frida Kahlo Museum, Hilda Trujillo, told The Associated Press in June 2019 that “there’s still a long way to go” to verify the voice in question. “I personally think that the art world has to be very strict in its judgment and can’t rush to assumptions,” Trujillo said. According to The Guardian, “Investigations will involve sound library officials, engineers, audio experts and even still-living sources. Trujillo said she is optimistic that there are still “enough elements to do a rigorous analysis.”The voice sounds light and smooth, which contradicts some assumptions of the artist. “I would have imagined that it would be a bit deeper and worn out,” Trujillo told The Associated Press. She said that Kahlo was very sick at the end of her life, and was a heavy smoker and drinker.Frida Kahlo and Leon Trotsky in Mexico. 1937When she was 21, Kahlo paid a visit to the studio of the much older artist Rivera in search of career advice. “She had unusual dignity and self-assurance and there was a strange fire in her eyes,” he said. Theirs was a volatile relationship, with Rivera having many affairs. Kahlo’s lovers allegedly included Leon Trotsky. Kahlo said to Rivera at one point, “You deserve a lover who listens when you sing, who supports you when you feel shame and respects your freedom; who flies with you and isn’t afraid to fall. You deserve a lover who takes away the lies and brings you hope, coffee, and poetry.”According to Sonia Corona of Spanish daily El Pais, several factors point toward the speaker being Kahlo: Experts note that the woman in question is not a professional radio announcer, since she pauses to take a breath multiple times and “tends to lisp,” and explain that the clip was recorded with a portable device rather than in an official studio, said the Smithsonian.Related Article: Only Known Recording of a Castrato – Italy’s Last Castrated Singing BoyYet not everyone is convinced. Mara de Anda, a relative, says no such recording has been found in her family records. She believes Frida Kahlo’s voice was far gruffer and therefore doesn’t match the voice reading “Portrait of Diego Rivera” in the recording.Nancy Bilyeau, a former staff editor at Entertainment Weekly, Rolling Stone, and InStyle, has written a trilogy of historical thrillers for Touchstone Books. Her new book, The Blue, is a spy story set in the 18th-century porcelain world. For more information, go to www.nancybilyeau.comlast_img read more

Amendments to police act to be taken to parliament

first_imgShareTweetSharePinNational Security Minister Rayburn BlackmooreMinister for Justice, Immigration and National Security, Rayburn Blackmoore said amendments to the Police Act for a new health insurance for police officers, will be taken to parliament. He said a meeting was held on March 21 where the Police Welfare Association accepted the proposed amendment.“It must be emphasized that the intention to ensure proper medical insurance coverage for police officers of the common wealth of Dominica, realizing the seriousness of this issue and recognizing the need to bring closure to this issue as quickly as possible,” he said.“Of importance is the meeting held on march 21st 2019 at the police headquarters conference room where a draft of the amendment was presented to the Police Welfare Association,” Blackmoore stated. “It is important to note that the Police Welfare Association accepted the proposed amendment and communicated the agreement to the government through the permanent security of the ministry of justice on the 22nd of march 2019.”He a committee, chaired by the Secretary to the Cabinet was appointed to make amendments to the act. It included the permanent secretary in the Ministry of Justice, Immigration and National Security, the Financial Secretary, Attorney General, the Chief Personal Officer and the Chief Parliamentary Counsel.He said the Government of Dominica is mandated by law to provide medical coverage for police officers and remains committed to ensuring the best possible health and life insurance coverage for police officers. Blackmoore mentioned that in keeping with this commitment, in 1997, the government at the time sought to amend section 10 of the Police Act, Chapter 1401, to implement a group health and life insurance scheme for police officers but this had a negative effect by restricting the Government of Dominica to a particular insurance company which in the long run, did not serve its intended purpose. “The new amendment seeks to reinforce government’s commitment to provide medical coverage for police officers and their dependents. The government of Dominica remains committed to pushing this matter forward and pledges to take this matter before parliament at a next sitting.” Blackmoore stated.Chairman of the police welfare association, Jefferson Drigo has welcomed the government’s decision to move forward with the amendment of the Police Act to provide for a new health insurance for police officers.“We are very pleased that government has taken a step in a right direction to amend section 10 of the Act, titled the police medical insurance… to pave the way and make it easier to choose a new insurance company,” he said. “Just over a week ago, we met with government officials to discuss the final draft of section 10 and at the end of it, we agreed with the amendments together and we are very pleased that government has given the commitment.”Drigo said that although he is delighted with the decision, he urged the government not to wait too long for more progress to be made.last_img read more

Skerrit promises housing development at Warner and income tax reduction

first_imgShareTweetSharePinPM Skerrit surrounded by DLP supporters at the launch of DLP’s Chekira LockhartPrime Minister Roosevelt Skerrit has announced that he will be implementing a comprehensive housing programme on the lands situated at Warner owned by the Dominica Social Security (DSS).“I will be unveiling very soon to the young professionals who are back in Dominica and who need a home, very soon I will unveil a comprehensive housing programme on the lands situated at Warner owned by the Dominica Social Security [DSS] where we will build a massive housing complex to provide adequate housing for the young professionals in Dominica,” Skerrit told supporters at the launch on Sunday, of DLP’s Roseau South candidate, Chekira Lockhart-Hypolite.He said he will be meeting the board of the DSS next week to give them the marching orders so that this project can begin soon.The prime minister said where housing is concerned, his government has kept its promise of “providing new housing in every hamlet in Dominica.”“I have a home. I want you to have a home too and I will do everything I can with the help of God, to ensure that you too, have a home in Dominica,” Skerrit stated.The prime minister, who holds the finance portfolio in his cabinet, has also promised income tax reduction under a new DLP administration.“Rather than taxing Dominicans further, we even plan to reduce the burden of direct taxation. In the next Labour Party term, you will see a reduction in income tax in Dominica, an introduction of a flat rate,” he said.Describing the upcoming election as “serious”, Skerrit asked the people of Roseau South to compare what the Dominica Labour Party and the United Workers Party are each offering to the people of Dominica and once again challenged UWP leader, Lennox Linton to, “tell us where the money is coming from.”“Dominica has one chance at success,” he contended. “We are in a build-back mode; we cannot slow the pace of development in this country. We cannot make a mistake this year or next year and hope to correct it in five years’ time.”Skerrit, “If this train goes off the course now, it will go out off course for a long, long time.”last_img read more

NALETA recruit honored

first_imgOctober 17, 2017 Photo courtesy of NPCNavajo County Sheriff K.C. Clark (right) presents a Meritorious Service Award to NPC’s Northeastern Arizona Law Enforcement Training Academy (NALETA) Recruit Krystopher Sanchez (left). NALETA recruit honoredcenter_img Northeastern Arizona Law Enforcement Training Academy (NALETA) Recruit Krystopher Sanchez was honored for his actions at the scene of a fatal train-vehicle accident at the S.R. 77 crossing in Holbrook on Aug. 20. Sanchez, who grewSubscribe or log in to read the rest of this content. Bottom Adlast_img

CM window complaints Khattar seeks departmental inquiry FIRs

first_imgThe Project Director, Chief Minister Good Governance Associates Pogramme, Dr Rakesh Gupta and OSD to Chief Minister, Bhupeshwar Dayal gave this information in a meeting with the Nodal Officers here Wednesday in connection with the complaints received on CM window.Issuing strict directions to the Nodal Officers, Dr Rakesh Gupta said, “Cases pending for one year should be disposed off before the next meeting otherwise strict action will be taken against the Nodal Officers”.Gupta also reviewed the complaints received on social media and appreciated those departments that took immediate action on the complaints.“In some cases of 2017 and 2018, in which no Action Taken Report (ATR) has been uploaded, the ATRs should be uploaded within seven days…,” Gupta said. Manohar Lal Khattar lauds his govt’s ‘Raahgiri’ programme Post Comment(s) Advertising By Express News Service |Chandigarh | Published: July 18, 2019 4:23:05 am CM window complaints: Khattar seeks departmental inquiry, FIRs Haryana Chief Minister Manohar Lal Khattar (PTI Photo/Arun Sharma)Haryana Chief Minister Manohar Lal Khattar has issued directions that FIRs be lodged and departmental inquiries be initiated against officers who are found negligent in taking adequate action complaints received at CM’s window. Jal Shakti Abhiyan: Khattar govt aims big for water conservation Related News Public campaign will be launched for water conservation: Haryana CM Khattar last_img read more

Attacks on Gujarat Dalits Assailants on bail parole

first_img Best Of Express Farmers did not use Narmada water in 10 lakh hectare: Gujarat Deputy CM Written by Gopal B Kateshiya, Vaibhav Jha, Parimal A Dabhi | Botad, Rajkot | Updated: July 4, 2019 6:58:58 am Gujarat: No walkway next to rail tracks, Kakra Creek Bridge a death trap In Sondarva’s case, the only one being investigated by the Criminal Investigation Department, eight men, including Mahendrasinh Bhikhubha Jadeja and Ajaysinh alias Ghanubha Chandubha Jadeja, have been arrested. These two, also residents of Manekvada, are the prime accused in the murder of Rajesh’s father Nanji on March 9 last year. All three accused in the Thangadh case and nine in the Botad case have also been arrested.Manji Solanki was killed in a manner similar to Rajesh Sondarva. He was returning on his bike from Charanki village, five km away from Jalila, in Botad district, when a car hit his bike and the accused beat him up with sticks and pipes.Botad SP Harshad Mehta had confirmed to The Indian Express that Solanki was attacked in 2010, 2011, 2016 and 2018 and that the police had registered offences on each occasion. It was only after the 2016 incident that the police lodged a case of attempt to murder against the accused.“In April 2016, they had attacked my father with swords. He was critically wounded. The police arrested Bhagirath Khachar and Ashok Khachar, sons of Zeeluaapa Khachar. However, they got bail and the threats continued. Then, on March 3, 2018, they again attacked my father with knives and wounded him. This time as well, Bhagirath and Ashok were sent to jail and were again released on bail,” said Tushar. LiveKarnataka floor test: Will Kumaraswamy’s 14-month-old govt survive? Advertising Surat homoeopathy doctor booked as pregnant woman dies after giving birth The accused belong to two Khachar families in Jalila whose patriarch is 60-year-old Zeeluaapa Khachar. For a living, the family relies on farming and leasing of land for mobile network towers in the village. Bhagirath and Ashok are among nine accused in the murder of Manji Solanki on June 19.In the Prakash Parmar murder case, the accused – Naresh Dhadhal, Devendra Bhagat and Jayraj Mala, all in their 20s – were angry after FIRs were filed against them by his relatives. Prakash’s brother, Bantu, alleged that the accused are part of a gang. After consulting his uncle Babu Parmar, who is the patriarch of the family, Bantu lodged FIRs against them in 2016.Read | Gujarat: Prime accused in Dalit deputy sarpanch murder case arrestedDhadhal, who had cases against him under the Atrocities Act and for bootlegging, was out on bail. “On June 12, they (the accused) had gone to Ambedkar Nagar looking for Babu. However, they were clear that if Babu was not found they would kill anybody from there (the Parmars) to re-establish their dominance,” said a police officer, who is part of the investigation.In the Manekvada case, too, the accused Mahendrasinh, Ajaysinh alias Ghanubha, Jitendrasinh Chandubha Jadeja, Jitendrasinh Nirmalsinh Jadeja, Narendrasinh Bahadursinh Jadeja and Jagabhai Bharwad have been granted bail by the Gujarat High Court in the Nanji murder case.“They got bail around six to seven months ago. Contending that Ghanubha was violating his bail condition as he was seen in the area, Rajesh Sondarva was trying to move court to get Ghanubha’s bail cancelled. This infuriated the accused, leading to Rajesh’s murder,” said a CID-crime officer.Now, based on a complaint filed by Nanji’s 18-year-old son Ajay, police have booked Mahendrasinh and his son Divyarajsinh alias Kumar, Ghanubha and his son Dhruvrajsinh, Yashpalsinh alias Akrunbha Jadeja and his brother Deependrasinh, Hardeepsinh Narednrasinh Jadeja and Hardeepsinh Bahadursinh Gohil for Rajesh’s murder. Advertising Advertising All the accused were arrested in May and are in judicial custody. Ghanubha was externed from Rajkot district in the past for bootlegging while Hardeepsinh Gohil had also faced action under the Prevention of Anti-Social Activities Act (PASA), said a CID officer. Ayodhya dispute: Mediation to continue till July 31, Supreme Court hearing likely from August 2 This was the fourth such case in less than two months in Saurashtra where those accused of murder returned to attack the family members of their victims or against whom they had a grouse. The incidents preceding Una were reported from Rajkot, Surendranagar and Botad districts and each time, the assailants were either out on bail or parole. Piyush was kicked and slapped, but in the other three incidents, the family members were killed.The motive behind the three killings seem to be the waning dominance of the upper castes in their own village or town.The string of copycat unrelated murders began on May 22 when 19-year-old Rajesh Sondarva was clubbed to death, allegedly by men from the Kshatriya community, two of who were arrested for murdering his father Nanji Sondarva last year. An RTI activist from Manekvada village in Rajkot district, Nanji had filed applications to expose alleged corruption by the accused. Related News More Explained Taking stock of monsoon rain Gujarat, Gujarat dalit beaten, dalit man beaten gujarat, dalit man thrashed Una, Una dalit beaten, Dalit man beaten una, una gujarat, gujarat news, indian express Thousands of Dalit activists from all over Gujarat attend the condolence meet of slain Dalit deputy sarpanch Manji Solanki in Jalila village of Botad and demand justice. (Express photo: Javed Raja)Less than a week ago, Piyush Sarvaiya, a 29-year-old Dalit from Una town, was assaulted by two men who were among 11 convicted by a special court last November for the murder of his brother in 2012. The two were out on parole and this was a revenge attack for the punishment handed to them by the court. Kulbhushan Jadhav ‘guilty of crimes’, will proceed further as per law: Imran Khan About three weeks later, on June 12, Prakash Parmar, a 34-year-old Dalit labourer in a ceramic unit, was killed in Thangadh town of Surendranagar district, allegedly by scythe-wielding Kathi Darbars to avenge criminal complaints lodged against them by his brother.Similarly, Manji Solanki, 51, a Dalit deputy sarpanch of Jalila village in Botad district, was run over and clubbed to death on June 19, allegedly by men from the Kshatriya community. They had made at least four attempts on his life earlier.In fact, a week before the murder, Manji had sought police protection from the Botad Superintendent of Police. His application was still under process when he was killed.Also read | Gujarat court agrees to hear Una Dalit flogging case on daily basis from July 29“How easy it is to kill a public representative. Had even a single personal security officer (PSO) accompanied my father, he would have been alive today. He paid with his life for the police protection we are getting now,” says Tushar Solanki, Manji’s son. Manji was deputy sarpanch of Jalila since 1995, upsetting the monopoly of the Khachar family of Kshatriyas, members of which allegedly killed him. 0 Comment(s)last_img read more

Curves Gestures May Be in iPhones Future

first_imgGesture control and a curved body may be in the iPhone’s future.Apple has been experimenting with those features for the iPhone, and they could be ready for prime time in two to three years, Bloomberg reported Wednesday, citing “people with knowledge in the matter.”Gesture control would allow a user to execute tasks without touching the screen.The technology could be used for more than just answering phone calls and opening apps, noted Gartner analyst Tuong Nguyen.”It could be used to enlarge the user experience,” he told TechNewsWorld.”It could be folded into an umbrella of multi-modal user experiences — understanding what you want through a gesture, a touch, voice or a biometric,” Nguyen suggested. “Gesture will be a bigger play than just ignoring a phone call with a wave of your hand.” Risky Curves John P. Mello Jr. has been an ECT News Network reportersince 2003. His areas of focus include cybersecurity, IT issues, privacy, e-commerce, social media, artificial intelligence, big data and consumer electronics. He has written and edited for numerous publications, including the Boston Business Journal, theBoston Phoenix, Megapixel.Net and GovernmentSecurity News. Email John. When Samsung began curving displays, it did so with an eye to altering the interface of its devices, said Gerrit Schneemann, a senior analyst with IHS Markit Technology.”At this point, the curve is just a design aesthetic,” he told TechNewsWorld. “There’s nothing enabled by it.”If Apple were to add curves to the iPhone’s figure, it would be tardy to the party, but that’s never been a problem for the company in the past.”Apple will surprise you,” Gartner’s Nguyen said. “Maybe they’ll bring it in late, but they will likely bring in something new, interesting and valuable to the consumer. I look forward to being surprised.”In a smartphone market where differentiation among flagship phones has become increasingly difficult, incremental technologies like gesture control and curved displays could help separate iPhone from the pack, observed Andreas Scherer, managing partner at Salto Partners.”However, the big question is, how much is the market actually willing to pay for incremental improvements that may or may not significantly impact the overall user experience?” he wondered.”Apple has adopted a high price strategy from the very inception of the iPhone,” Scherer told TechNewsWorld. “It’s unclear if these capabilities will help justify Apple’s premium in the future.” The mobile industry is looking at innovative user interfaces to breathe new life into the market, and gesture control can be a part of that, said David McQueen, a research director at ABI Research.”Many new interfaces will develop where voice, artificial intelligence, mixed reality, augmented reality and gesture experiences will all come to the fore,” he told TechNewsWorld.Gesture control can have more prosaic applications, too.”It’s good when you’re wearing gloves or your hands are dirty,” said Kevin Krewell, a principal analyst with Tirias Research.”I expect this to be a cool demo feature, but not something people will use all the time,” he told TechNewsWorld.Gesture controls don’t make anything necessarily easier, maintained Ramon Llamas, a senior research analyst for IDC.”The easiest and most natural user interface is the one where you don’t have to use touch or gestures at all. That’s using your voice,” he told TechNewsWorld. “I just haven’t seen anything from the gesture side of things that says users want to do this.” center_img Form for Form’s Sake Curved displays aren’t new. Samsung’s latest Galaxy models, the S9 and S9+, have them. Even the iPhone X has a slight curve at its bottom.However, it appears that Apple has been experimenting with curving the display gradually from top to bottom. Samsung curves its displays at the edges.The use of OLED displays gives phone makers the ability to bend the screens in their devices.”The ability to bend the display allows for a more flexible design for the phone,” explained Tirias’ Krewell. “I expect this will allow for a more comfortable and organic shape in the hand.”That said, the merits of curved screens don’t seem to have captured a lot of interest.”Curved screens have been tried before in smartphones and TVs, and they don’t seem to have had much resonance with consumers,” noted ABI’s McQueen.”I think it would be risky to adopt curved screens into Apple’s portfolio unless it is implemented in a way that hasn’t been seen before and is more subtle than previous attempts, which is what Apple does best,” he added. Invigorating Interfaceslast_img read more

Why patients with ALL relapse after CART cell therapy

first_imgWe learn so much from each patient, in both success or failure of this new therapy, that helps us improve these still-developing treatments so they can benefit more patients.”Professor Joseph Melenhorst, Senior Author This relapse mechanism provides important evidence that due to the delicate and complex manufacturing process, any slight variation can have an impact on patient outcomes, Ruella adds.The patient, who had very advanced leukemia, received the therapy as part of a clinical trial conducted in 2016.The finding follows another case where, essentially, the opposite occurred.In a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, a single CAR T cell multiplied to fight off the disease and this led to remission.   Source:https://www.eurekalert.org/emb_releases/2018-10/uops-pdn092618.php By Sally Robertson, B.Sc.Oct 1 2018Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have made a new discovery about a rare mechanism that triggers the relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after CAR T cell therapy.Image Credit: Juan Gaertner / ShutterstockThe study, which was recently published in the journal Nature Medicine, has explained how a single leukemic cell became resistant to the therapy.In one patient who was administered the therapy, the CAR lentivirus that usually binds to a T cell and induces it to target cancer, also bound to a leukemic cell.This gave the leukemic cell the ability to avoid the therapy by masking a protein called CD19 that is usually targeted by CARs to destroy cancer cells.Leukemic cells that do not express CD19 on their surface are able to resist CAR T cell therapy, so the binding of CAR to the leukemic cell in this patient’s case, led to relapse.center_img In this case, we found that 100 percent of relapsed leukemic cells carried the CAR that we use to genetically modify T cells.”Dr. Marco Ruella, Lead Author Although this is a single case, it is still incredibly important, adds Melenhorst: “This can help us refine the intricate processes required for manufacturing CAR-T cell therapy to ensure the best chance of long-term remissions.”last_img read more